Timeline


Events in and around Tywardreath

Set out chronologically - scroll down or use the following links for 10 year groups

Parliamentary Commission into Children Working in the Mines

1810  1820  1830  1840  1850  1860  1870  1880

1900


1810s

  • 1813
    • Wheal Treasure, Wheal Fortune and Wheal Chance began to be worked.
  • 1814
    • JT Austen of Fowey (who later changed his name to Treffry) purchased a share in each of the following mines: Wheal Treasure, Wheal Fortune, Wheal Chance.
    • Other shareholders were: The Rev Robert Walker of St Winnow, John Colman Rashleigh of Prideaux,and also a John Vivian.
  • 1817
    • The Captain at Wheal Treasure was John Hitchens of Par who advised Austen to purchase a further two shares in July 1817.
    • Lanescot Mine opened about this time.
  • 1818
    • For the year ending 30 June 1818 Wheal Treasure produced 1202 tons of copper ore. The sale of which amounted to £7413, being nearly as much as in the three previous years.

1820s

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  • 1820
    • Richard Peake gave up a contract to provide horses for the removal of ore and waste from the mines on the 20 July after just over a month. A John Crocker then took over this contract and a Capt Sam Hitchens and partners had the contract to draw water from the mine.
    • Thomas Petherick and Austen were purchasing Lanescot shares.
    • William Davis, Henry Couche, Edward Remfry, James Bennetts Jnr, John Puckey and Peter Clymo were to become part of the management at Lanescot and Fowey Consols.
      William Davis served in the Royal Marines from the mid 1820s to 1837. He was the purser until his retirement in Feb 1866.
      The others were mine captains.
      John Puckey and Peter Clymo were joint managers after Thomas Petherick left in the early 1830s.
      Peter Clymo departed following major discoveries at South Caradon mine near Liskeard.
      John Puckey was then chief agent until his death in 1858.
  • 1822
    • Fowey Consol mines created. A newspaper advertisement on 21 Sep 1822 referred to lodes recently discovered at Fowey Consols in the east and north part of the sett. The old names of the setts were continued to be used.
  • 1824
    • Attempts were made to acquire adjoining setts. Trevenna was obtained from James Bower at the end of 1824
  • 1825
    • The Taylor family were allowed to search for minerals at Carrugatt by John Colman Rashleigh. From a letter JC Rashleigh wrote to Thomas Robins 13 October:-

      "I am unwilling to grant any sett for mining at Carruggatt without first ascertaining the certainty of the lodes and viewing myself the precise boundaries that would be required. Mr Taylor is welcome to direct any pits to be sunk in search of the lodes, provided he covenants to fill them in again, and make good any injury done to the tenants... could not a clause be inserted in the sett for preventing the carriage of ore so as to interrupt our road to church? I still hope that a rail road may be effected either to Par, or Charlestown for the conveyance of copper through the influence of Charlestown Company and Messrs Taylor & Co.; such an event would make me more willing to grant setts"

    • At the end of the year there was a general recession, and the price of copper ore was almost halved. Banks failed, and country banks were not allowed to issued their £1 and £2 notes. A time of hardship - Austen wrote to Robert Peel the Home Secretary to complain that "a great part of the labouring class will be thrown out of employment the moment that the local one pound notes cease to circulate"
  • 1826
    • The combined output of Fowey Consols and Lanescot placed them fifth in the list of Cornish copper producers behind the Consolidated Mines in Gwennap, East Crinnis, Dolcoath and Pembroke mines.
    • Thomas Johns of St. Blazey, miner, and Philip Pascoe of St. Austell, miner, indicted for a riot in Tywardreath, and for assaulting Samuel Vivian and William Rundle, two petty constables in Tywardreath, in execution of their duty, and also for common assault: found guilty of the riot only: for Thomas Johns three weeks' hard labour in Bodmin gaol; for Philip Pascoe two weeks' hard labour in Bodmin gaol.
  • 1827
    • Attempts were unsucessful in trying to obtain the mining rights of Trenadlyn and Great Treverran to the north of Trevenna, the landowners Rashleigh and Richard Foster of Castle, Lostwithiel refusing permission for Austen to divert the steam which flowed through Carruggatt Wood so it would flow across Colwith to Great Treverran.
    • Richard Treleaven of Tywardreath, miner indicted for a riot and assaulting Samuel Vivian and William Rundle, two constables of Tywardreath: six weeks' hard labour in Bodmin gaol.
  • 1828
    • A letter from Austen to George Lucy in January 1828:-

      "In Fowey nearly all the trade and employment are derived from me - the poor of St Sampson (Golant) are employed in my mines - and in Tywardreath I not only employ upwards of 1100 people but pay about one half of the rates of the whole parish."

    • Further expansion gave a shortage of labour, and women and children carried out most of the surface work at the mines. Thomas Petherick mechanised the separating of the finer sized ore from the waste. Thomas Petherick stated that the working of the mines was "considerably impeded by the scarcity of miners, owing principally to the want of dwelling houses in the neighbourhood."
    • Thomas Petherick of Tywardreath, mine agent, indicted for assault on John Swan: fined 20s paid in court.
  • 1829
    • The digging of the canal from Par to Penpillick Hill was started.
    • The first boat was launched on the canal on the 1st August, the boats carrying 52 tons and drawn by one horse.
    • An inclined plane was constructed from the canal basin to the waste burrows , and a tramway was constructed from there to Lanescot mine to enable the ore to be transported to the canal. The incline ran through a tunnel under the St Blazey to Lostwithiel Road. The plane was self acting with the weight of the loaded tram wagon pulling up an empty one.

1830s

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  • 1830
    • Wheal Hope taken in to the Fowey Consol operation about this time.
    • Social unrest throughout England in the autumn, with riots, rick burning the destruction of agricultural machinery and threats to landowners commonplace throughout the southern counties.
    • Miners employed near St Austell and Fowey threatened to prevent the shipment of corn in the neighbouring ports of Fowey and Charlestown etc.
    • Samuel Vivian the landlord of the Commercial Inn, Well Street, Tywardreath left for The Packhorse in Plymouth
  • 1831
    • 19 Feb - Edward Remfry, a miner of St Blazey, was tied on an ass with placards reading "I am the Black Sheep of East Crinnis mine" he was led the four miles from Tywardreath to St Austell Bridge on the animal accompanied by 500 miners who objected to the fact that he took a pitch at East Crinnis while he already had one at Pembroke mine.
    • The following week 3000 miners marched through Helston to prevent further shipments of corn from the town.
    • This was also the setting day at Fowey Consols and Lanescot which the miners attended with the aim of controlling the bidding for pitches to ensure that the prices were kept up (Tribute and tutwork pitches went to the lowest bidder.) Two men refused to join in the arrangement and they took refuge in the Count House when threatened by the other men. The miners refused to disperse and magistrates, including Austen and Nicholas Kendall were called in and the Riot Act read, seven of the rioters were arrested.
    • The Royal Cornwall Gazette reads:- "on their being put into chaises for conveyance to prison, a violent attempt to rescue the prisoners was made by several hundred persons present."
    • The next day large numbers of miners met on Par Green and it was reported that they intended to go and free their colleagues. About forty special constables were sworn in and the Royal Cornwall Miltia was called out.
    • A Scottish Regiment who landed at Fowey were marched up to the mines.
    • The seven arrested miners were tried Launceston in March with "having committed a Riot at Fowey Consols and Lanescot Mines, in the Parish of Tywardreath. The seven were lucky to be discharged.
    • The perpendicular shaft for the 80" Austen's Engine was sunk in the winter of 1831/32. The ruins of the engine house is one of the few visible remains left of the mines, and is situated at the northern end of the site of the Fowey Consols.
    • Richard Crocker of Tywardreath, lab. indicted for stealing various brass fittings, property of Joseph Thomas Austen, esq: transported for seven years.
  • 1832
    • William Petherick and William West become joint engineers, replacing John Webb.
    • The 80" engine designed by William West was ordered on the 6 April by William Petherick from Harvey & Co. at a cost of £1975.
  • 1834
    • The 80" engine started work on Saturday 3rd May, the event being reported in the Royal Cornwall Gazette. The performance of the engine in July was the highest of engines reported, continuing to create surprise at its performance and the engineers were called upon to submit the engine to trials.
    • From The Cornwall Gazette: On the 6th August 1834, a new line of road from Par to Fowey, over the cliff was opened for the accommodation of the public. Some years since by the liberality of the landowner, Sir Francis Bassett, Lord de Dunstanville (whose monument is on the summit of Carn Brea), the first cut was made by that spirited gentleman, J.T.Austen (Squire Treffry) of Fowey at an expense of nearly £300 and who has also given all the stones to finish it and which were brought from the extensive granite hills at the head of that gentleman's canal in boats a distance of nearly three miles. Through the liberal donations of Lord de Dunstanville; Wm Rashleigh Esq; Sir John Colman Rashleigh, Bart; Capt Collins, R.N and other gentlemen in the neighbourhood besides the many who have also contributed by giving their carts free of hire this most desirable object is now completed thus facilitating travelling between the towns of St Austell and Fowey, over the new bridge and through the works at Par - marine view and minig districts forming one of the most pleasant drives in the southern parts of the county.
    • 1st November Jonathan Cock a local landowner gave the right to cut an incline and tunnel from the lands of Nicholas Kendall under the road leading from St Austell to Lostwithiel, under Shepherd's Park and Lane End fields, for the use of bringing coal and supplies up from the canal
  • 1836
    • Rundle and partners obtained the sets of Trenadlyn and Little Treverran, also other sets so that they almost surrounded the Fowey Consols.
    • A shaft was sunk at the point where the Fowey Consols adjoined the Trenadlyn set. The engine at "Henriettas" was set up some 2 years later
    • Lanescot mine was consolidated with the South Fowey Consols. The ore from Lanescot falling off since 1832, although ore continued to be produced.
    • The income of the two mines peaked at £100,000 in this year. The amount of ore produced over the next two years was higher but the price of ore falling off.
    • Some 1700 people were now employed at the mines
    • William Davis resigns from the Royal Marines at Plymouth and returns to the mines as purser, taking over from Henry Couche
    • An Edward Hennah was a clerk at the Count House but seemed not to be an ideal worker. William Davis wrote to Austen in July :- "I think, for many reasons, it will be desirable to let Mr Hennah fill Mr Hale's vacancy - one who can fill the situation more effectively cannot be found, but unless Capt Francis is particular with him to begin, so as to ensure a punctual attendance when the boys and girls go to work in the morning there will be trouble in getting him to break through his lazy habits.
    • 1 July 1836, Friday from The West Briton Newspaper
      Cornwall Midsummer Sessions, 1836
      Francis Verran and Henry Verran (on bail) indicted for stealing some sheet iron from Fowey Consols Mine, the property of Joseph Thomas Austen,Esq. and others. Guilty. Francis Verran, three months imprisonment and hard labour, Henry Verran one week and hard labour.
    • 29 July 1836 from The West Briton Newspaper
      Tywardreath Rural Gardening Society- [Most prizes were 3s or less; for instance, best bouquet of roses, 2s.7d to William Petherick, 2nd 1s.6d to Nancy Tarry, best 6 geraniums, 2s.6d to Daniel Farmalla]
      The sixth Annual Exhibition of this Society took place in the village of Tywardreath on Wednesday the 20th inst. The show of Fruit &c was particularly fine, more especially on the cottagers' table, which far exceeded any former year, and proves that a spirit of innocent ambition and harmless rivalry is spreading among the labouring classes who are within the reach of this society.
      About half-past two o'clock the chair was taken by J. T. Austen, Esq. of Fowey, who delivered an interesting and appropriate speech. [He said that he had been brought up gardening, but once politics took precedence he had entirely neglected it. But as he was now past being concerned with politics, he would give more attention to gardens. After these remarks, the speaker "exhorted the cottagers' wives to use their endeavours to make their houses comfortable homes for their husbands, and thus induce them to spend their leisure hours there, which in too many cases are spent at the beer-shop, the cause of which, in some cases, was to be attributed to the slovenly appearance of their homes, and the uncomfortable reception their husbands meet with there. To remove this, he suggested the propriety of offering a prize for the neatest cottage, as well as the gardens." He then called on the secretary to make a report.]
      For the Cottager whose Rental does not exceed £6.10s per annum, for the neatest and best stocked garden in the undermentioned parishes:
      Tywardreath - 10s to Thomas Rundle, Polkerris; St. Austell - 7s 6d to Richard Hart; St. Blazey - 7s 6d to William Mitchell; St. Mewan - 5s to William Bennett; Luxulyan - 7s 6d to George Vercoe; Lanlivery - 7s 6d to Reuben Skilling; Fowey - 7s 6d to Nancy Tarry, widow; St. Sampsons 7s 6d to John Mitchell; Lostwithiel - 5s to William Olver
      To the Labourer, miner, or fisherman in each of the above Parishes, who has brought up the largest family without parochial assistance:
      Tywardreath - 10s to Joseph Trembath (10 children); St. Austell - 10s to Edward Rouse; St. Blazey - 10s to Richard Thomas (10 children); Fowey - 10 s to Richard Rowe (8 children); Luxullian - 10s to Rachel George; Lanlivery - 10s to John Vincent (12 children); St. Sampsons - 10s to William Mitchell; St. Mewan - Thomas Coad; Lostwithiel - 10s to ____ ;
      Given by Capt Collins, R. N. to the cottager, labourer, miner or fisherman, who has bound to trades the greatest number of children within the last twenty-one years, or one year in permanent service, a prize of £1.1s to William Woolcock of Lanlivery (11 children bound).
    • 19 August 1836 - from The West Briton Newspaper
      Tywardreath Cricket Club - On Tuesday the 9th instant, the anniversary of this club was held, when the weather being very fine, a large concourse of people assembled on the ground, to witness the athletic sport with which they appeared to be highly gratified. The play was excellent, and the prize well contested, much dexterity and skill being exhibited by the players; and the pleasures of the day were not a little heightened by the attendance of the Royal Cornish Band. On leaving the ground, the members, preceded by the band, walked in procession to the New Inn, where an excellent supper of the old English fare was served up in Mr Polkinghorne's best style. The evening was spent with the greatest harmony and conviviality, the band continued to play favourite airs, and the company separated about twelve o'clock, highly pleased with their afternoon's festivity.
    • 11 November 1836 - from The West Briton Newspaper
      Marriages - at Tywardreath, Mr Richard Ellis, of Ludgvan, to Miss Mary Buzza, of the former parish. Also, Mr Richard Vivian, of St. Ewe, to Miss Eliza Spargoe, of Tywardreath
  • 1837
    • A visit was made by the Director of the Ordnance Geological Survey to Fowey Consols and he issued his findings in "A report on the Geology of Cornwall, Devon & West Somerset" which was published in 1839.
    • 4 August - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Tywardreath Rural Gardening Society
      The seventh annual exhibition of this interesting society took place on the 26th instant. The weather being exceedingly fine, the attendance was more than ordinarily numbers, that of the higher class particularly so. Arches of laurel and evergreens were erected in various parts of the village and the doors of many cottages were similarly decorated. This, together with the occasional ringing of the parish bells, and the display of numerous flags, gave the village an extremely gay appearance.
      List of Prizes - Prizes given by the Rt. Hon Lady Basset and William Rashleigh, Esq., for the Cottager whose rental does not exceed £6.10s. per annum, for the neatest and best stocked garden in the undermentioned Parishes:
      Tywardreath - 1st Prize 10s James Spargoe; 2nd Prize 9s John Walkom ; 3rd Prize 8s John Martin ; 4th Prize 6s Thomas Rundle; 5th Prize 5s John Henwood; 6th Prize 4s William Tiller; 7th Prize 3s Edward Sowden; 8th Prize 2s 6d Joseph Trembath
      Lostwithiel - 1st Prize 5s Jonathan Knight; St. Austell - 1st Prize 7s 6d James Coad ; 2nd Prize 6s Matthew Calf
      Fowey - 1st Prize 7s 6d Joseph Wendon; 2nd Prize 5s Henry Wills; 3rd Prize 4s William Bound; 4th Prize 2s 6d Peter Dunstan;[
      St Blazey - 1st Prize 7s 6d James Jenkin; 2nd Prize 5s 2d William Pearce; 3rd Prize 4s James Luke; 4th Prize 2s 6d John Dawe;
      Luxullion - 1st Prize 7s.6d William Trembath; 2nd Prize William Williams;3rd Prize Robert Grose; 4th Prize William Treleaven
      St. Mewan - First Prize, 5s John Lawry; 2nd Prize 3s Charles Cock;
      Lanlivery - First Prize 7s 6d Jonathan Welch; 2nd Prize William Werry; 3rd Prize Reuben Skilling; 4th Prize John Rowe;
      St. Sampsons - First Prize 7s 6d John Mitchell;
      Given...to the cottager, labourer, miner or fisherman,....who had bound to trades the greatest number of children within the last 21 years: William Jacobs, of St. Austell, who has bound 5 to trades, and one to permanent service, £1.1s. ...who has brought up the largest family without parochial assistance: Tywardreath, 10s to William Petherick, 9 children - St. Austell, 10s to William Jennings, 11 children - St. Blazey, 10s to Nathaniel Rowe, 11 children - St. Mewan, 10s to Thomas Coad, 12 children - Fowey, 10s to Peter Dunstan, 9 children - Lanlivery, 10s to William Werry, 12 children Neatest and cleanest cottage: - Tywardreath 10s to John Rundle, - Fowey 10s to John Bennett; - St. Blazey, 10s to William Pearce
    • 1 December, Friday - The Western Morning News
      Local News
      Tywardreath - The foundation stone of a Market house was laid at this village on Thursday last, by Mr John Pearce, of Newhouse, the steward of the manor. The building, which will be spacious, will consist of a house for butchers, and a room over for a school, and other public purposes. A large space will be enclosed for the convenience of market gardeners, &c. It is to be erected at the sole expense of John Basset, Esq., lord of the manor, from a design by Mr W. E. Geach, and when completed will have a neat and pleasing appearance.
      Accident - On Saturday last, as a little boy named Spargoe, of Tywardreath, about seven years of age, was in the act of opening a gate near one of the railroads in Fowey Consols Mine, the wagon came up at a rapid rate, and the poor child falling on the tram, the wheels passed over his leg, and fractured it in so shocking a manner, that several pieces of bone protruded through the flesh. It is feared that amputation above the knee will be necessary.
  • 1838
    • February 2 - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Marriage at Tywardreath, on Wednesday last, Mr. Charles Lamb, malster, to Miss Bartlett, of the Commercial Inn.
    • February 9 - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Marriage on Tuesday last, at Fowey, Mr. G. Couch, of Tywardreath, to Miss Rowe, of the former place.
    • September 14 - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Extraordinary Ox
      A fine ox, fed on the farm of J.T. Treffry, Esq., was slaughtered last week at Tywardreath, by Mr John Knight. The animal was stall fed, and did great credit to Mr Paige, the intelligent hind of that gentleman. It weighed, when alive, 19 ½ cwt., and the carcase 12 cwt 6 lbs, besides a quantity of beautiful loose fat, which, together with the beef, was the best ever slaughtered in the neighbourhood.

1840s

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  • 1840
    • 28 February - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Ploughing Match in Tywardreath
      All being ready, the signal for starting, a bugle, was sounded, and all was animation; the ploughmans' eye seemed riveted on his object, whilst the driver appeared to vie with his superior in his determination to cut a straight furrow. Amongst the single ploughs was one partially constructed with iron, having a wheel to assist its progress; its work was particularly admired, as was also John Martyn, the skillful manager of it. It was the only one of the sort in the field and belonged to Mr Samuel Anstey of Menabilly farm. Amongst the shifting ploughs was one belonging to Mr Andrew of Tregaminion, which was drawn by two horses, cleverly managed by the ploughman, Edmund Paynter, without the assistance of a driver.
  • 1841
    • 30 April - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Mine Captain gets a soaking
      On Wednesday, the 21st, as Captain Puckey of St Blazey, the mine managing agent of J.T. Treffry Esq., was performing his round on horseback, on his way to Par Consols, in the West Fowey Consols Mine, and whilst riding along the towing path of the canal (from Par to Pontsmill) his horse took fright at the flapping of some clothes which had been put out to dry, and instantly leaped with his rider over the slopping part of the canal into the water. Capt Puckey says that in coming out of the water he found a difference in the atmosphere equal to that of the deep level in Fowey Consols Mine, which he had only left about three hours before.
  • 1842
    • A Parliamentary Commission Report by Charles Barham published on the Employment of Children and Young Persons in the Mines of Cornwall and Devonshire, and on the State, Condition and Treatment of such Children and Young Persons.
    • Examined at the Fowey Consols Mines April 2 1841:

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      Jacob Waters, 17 years and 10 months old:-
      Is employed at the 67-fathom level, beating the borer and turning it. Has been 16 months underground steadily. Before that worked underground for a very short time, when he was between 15 and 16. The air is poor where he is now. He has been there about four months, driving a level. He feels a pain in the head after working some time, which lasts for some hours after he is come to the surface. Almost every morning he has a cough, and brings up some stuff as black as ink. Sometimes he feels a pain in the breast. He is employed at tutwork. They work regularly eight-hour cores; always from six am to two pm. They "shoot" (blast) three or four times a day, after which they cannot go into the end for half an hour, as it is full of smoke. He then eats his pasty in the level, where there is better air. He went to work at "grass" at 12 years old. Worked two years at "jigging," and before that at the stamps. He can do his work very well. He does nothing after he comes up from underground. He cannot generally get water underground. Sometimes it is brought to the same level. He sweats a great deal and is very thirsty. When he worked at night, he only worked double stem once. He worked double stem yesterday, - from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m., coming up in the meantime for an hour. He changes in a cold place. There is no warm water. In winter-time the shoes are sometimes frozen up in the chest. Has known several accidents happen to boys underground - some from falling away. His father was a miner, and had his leg broken by a piece of timber falling on him in the shaft. He went to day-school till he was 12, and afterwards to Sunday-school for a year and a half. He has since gone to an evening-school, where he learnt ciphering as far as compound division. The charge was 3d. a week if a candle was brought by the boy, and 3½ d. otherwise. Reads well, and can write.

      William Blewett, 16 years and 4 months old. :-
      Works at the 55-fathom level. He went underground first about nine years of age. He then worked a month or two at a time, blowing air. The deepest place he was then in was the 150-fathom level. Afterwards, at 11, he worked for a year at a time. At less than 12 years of age he was taken into concern with his father; was employed beating the borer, &c. He took his night "core" regularly then. He worked in "poor air" for nine months before the last two months. He felt noises in the head, and his legs would feel so weak that he was forced to stop at every ladder. Was very much affected with cough when working in the "poor air," and would bring up black stuff. When a little boy, he felt but little inconvenience when blowing air; but sometimes found the air so bad that he would be sick at the same time. At present he never works double stem; nor after 12 at night; except the other night when waiting on the trammer. He went to school for a twelvemonth before he came to work at surface, which he did at seven years of age. Since that has gone, till lately, to Tywardreath Sunday-school. They are very seldom asked questions on what they read. He can write very little. Never did any ciphering. Reads pretty well.

      James Collins, 14 years and 5 months old. :-
      Has been underground about seven months. Was before about three years "to grass." He works now at the 80-fathom level, at the blowing-machine. Finds it rather hard work. When he goes into the end, when they want him, "his head aches from the poor air, after he comes out." Does not get sick, but cannot eat his meat there. Very seldom eats the pasty he takes underground, but eats his meal heartily at home after he comes up. Can hardly climb sometimes from weakness in the legs. They carry water down themselves. Nobody is employed in this mine to carry water underground. He did not suffer "at grass" except sometimes from cold or getting wet, when "buddling." He is better now than when he went underground. Can eat his meat better. He is not in much smoke, and does not cough up the black sputa. He went to day-school "to a lot of places" before he came to the mine. Learnt nothing but reading. Has nearly forgotten what he learnt. Has not been to Sunday-school these nine months, for want of clothes. His father was a miner. "He went underground and took pain in his bowels, and died." This was nine years ago. His mother was left with four children. They are all employed at the mine. They can read. He worked last week three double stems, to keep the place for a comrade who met with an accident. "His candle went out, and he walked right into a winze." Once this week he has worked double stem for himself. He takes the night core with the men. He likes working underground better than "at grass," because the time is shorter. After he gets home he fetches water, works in the garden and so forth. He has quite forgotten his reading, even in the Bible. Is hoarse, and says he has been so ever since he went underground.

      John Rundel, 14 years old. :-
      Has been two years underground, works now at the 120-fatham level; he worked "to grass" before, for about three years and a half; his employment now is at the blowing-machine, and "haling tackle." The air is very bad; he cannot eat his pasty much, "he feels in his stomach all urging;" was well when at grass, except colds; worked then at "buddling," and "trunking" was often wet; got his things dried at night when he went to bed; he finds it hard to climb the ladders; "likes underground better than to grass;" takes his night core in regular succession. His father is dead; "he was hurted", and went to work too soon afterwards; he left four children; one sister is married, and his two brothers work here. He went to day-school for three years and a half; learned to write pretty well but has forgotten it since; goes to the Methodist Sunday-school; learns nothing but reading and spelling. Reads badly.

      William Cullis, 17 years old. :-
      Is employed "jigging" at the floors; he worked before at the "crushers" (grinder) but found it disagreed with his stomach; he was laid up three times; found his breathing short; lost his appetite, and brought up "old black trade", hears other boys complain of this sometimes; he has been five years at the mine; was three years at the jigging-machine; found his back ached sometimes; when at the grinder he used to work sometimes (four times in six months) day and night, from seven in the evening to five next morning; he has been healthy at the other work. He went to day-school for two years; learnt to write a little, but has forgotten it. He went to Sunday-school, Tywardreath Church- school, till about a year ago; only learnt reading and spelling. Reads pretty well.

      John Tillum, 14 years and 5 months old. :-
      Has worked underground most of his time for about four years past; works at the 170-fathom level, at the blowing-machine; it is very hot in the place; he can eat his pasty there; is hoarse now, has been so about three weeks; he very seldom works double stem. His father is a miner; has five children, all younger than himself. He went to day-school; learnt a little ciphering, which he has forgotten; can write a little. Goes to Sunday-school (Methodist) still; they only learn reading and spelling. He reads pretty well.

      John Spargoe, 11 years and 4 months old. :-
      Has been two years at the mine; is employed "jigging;" finds his back aches a little, but can play about afterwards; has a task once or twice a week, and can get away at two or three o'clock; works for himself afterwards when he can; never works at night. He went to day-school about a year before he came here; can read the Testament; goes to Sunday-school. Reads badly. A healthy boy.

      Mary Buller, 15 years and 10 months old. :-
      Has been working here about six years; generally "spalling" and "cobbing;" has generally had pretty good health; does not feel the work; leaves at five in the evening, never stays later, except once last month; perhaps once a week has a task, and can get away at three or half-past three. "Most of the girls whom I know of, and I know a pretty deal of them in the mine, are strong and hearty." One of them (whose name she mentioned) "is terrible weakly, and looks very earthy, though she is 18". She went to day-school for three years, and learnt to read, and sew, and knit; has forgotten her reading; has not had clothes to go to Sunday-school; her mother is a widow, and could not afford to keep them at school.

      Caroline Coom, 11 years old. :-
      Has been working here about two years; is employed "picking;" finds it easy and pleasant work; does not feel tired at the end of the day; none of the girls picking complain of anything; they get colds sometimes; she has no task; does not leave before five; has had a fever since she has been working at the mine; does not know how long ago. She goes to Sunday-school; reads the Testament there. Reads a little.

      Absalom George, 13 years old. :-
      He has worked underground about 13 months; is at the 45-fathom level; goes with his father instead of a man; gets wages as "part of a man;" he worked "to grass" for two years before. He went underground some time ago, and "blowed the machine" for about a fortnight; "the air was rather dead, and I was laid up, and was turned out from there." He mostly spits up, when he comes up from work, "nasty black trade;" he brings up some borers and other weights sometimes, "which makes him pant a good deal." Does not work at night, nor double stem; he likes it better than to grass, because the days are shorter, but he works hard when he gets home, and would be obliged to do so if at grass. His father has a little farm; he has seven children; two of them are younger than himself, and do nothing; the rest are employed. He went to day-school from about six years old, and about 10 "went to ball" (the mine). He learnt to write a little; can write his name. Goes to Sunday-school; can read pretty well.

      John Penhall, aged 50 years. Examined at Biscovey, St. Blazey, April 3rd., 1841 :-
      Has been a miner from a boy; went underground at 15 or 16; has nine children, whom he has had taught to read and write; he has paid 5s. 6d. a quarter for the day-school, and 3d. a week for the evening-school; this is only open in the winter months. One of his boys he took underground at Fowey Consols about Christmas; he was 12 years old, a very fine and strong boy of his age. In about five weeks afterwards his boy was taken home on a shutter, with a broken leg and collar-bone; he fell off the ladder; could give no account of his fall, was not carrying anything; he was working himself in a distant part of the mine at the time. "When I was told what had happened, I traveled as fast as I could to the place; and I seemed to see, every few fathoms as I went, the body of my poor boy all crushed together: it was so clear that I stopped and rubbed my eyes, and asked myself whether I as in my right mind or no. When I got to the place, the boy was sitting upon a man's knee looking up quite cheerful, only crying a little." He has found, when working in "poor air," that the pain in the forehead would often be very severe, and it was aggravated to an instense degree on stooping; so that he would dread to stoop to pick up a tool if he let one fall. The changes from head to cold were at times very sudden; he might be working at a place, to get at which he would be obliged to wade for a considerable distance up to his breast in cold water; at other times he might work in a very hot place, from which they were obliged to retreat very frequently, as the water gained upon them, into the level, where they would get huddled together as closely as possible, "creaming with cold"; then when "the water was in fork" (removed), they would go in again and drive at their work as hard as they could.

    • Working at the mines did mean shorter working hours and better pay than agricultural jobs. As people settled nearer to the mine, they had less distance to walk but in 1841 some were still having to travel up to 5 miles each way every day, but most workers lived about 1 or 2 miles away. The surface workers would start work at 7am during the summer and at daybreak at other times of the year.
  • 1843
    • 10 March - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Presentation for superior workmanship
      On Saturday last, a gold laced hat was presented by Captain Puckey, Mr Treffry's principal mining agent, to Simon Uren, timberman, of Par Consols mine, in the presence of three hundred men, for the diligence and superior workmanship he had displayed, particularly in Treffry's North Engine Shaft, which is considered not to be equalled in the county.

1850s

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  • 1850
    • Treffry died on the 29 January, aged 68. The funeral was on the 5 February at Fowey. All work was suspended at the mines, at his other concerns and the shops in Tywardreath, St Blazey and Fowey closed.
    • One of the chief mourners was William Davis. The bearers connected with Fowey Consols were Thomas Thomas (mapper and dialer), William Powne (storekeeper and general clerk), William Polkinghorne (purser's deputy and general pay clerk)and John Puckey.
  • 1851
    • One of the Fowey Consol surgeons W.W.Tayler, wrote "the bal maidens carry their fondness for dress to extremes: all the dresses exhibited in the plates of the monthly books of fashion may be seen at Tywardreath or St Blazey on a fine Sunday afternoon, not even omitting the additional accompaniment of parasols, lace edged pocket handker- chiefs etc." Two surgeons at Fowey Consols were Tayler and Pace
    • John Puckey died on 27 March aged 58.
    • The development at Henriettas shaft seems to have come to a halt.
    • Carruggatt becomes a centre of exploitation.
    • The mine reports were now being signed by Captains: Philip Rich, C Merrett and Samuel Sampson.
  • 1852
    • 26 November 1852 - From The West Briton Newspaper
      Floods in St Blazey
      Owing to the heavy rain which fell on Saturday night last, the river above St Blazey bridge overflowed several acres of land adjoining the reservoir that feeds the canal, and about eleven o'clock on Sunday forenoon, the bridge gave way, and a tremendous rush of water took the inhabitants by surprise, it coming around them in torrents. Some began to move their things up-stairs; and others were obliged to retreat to the upper parts of their houses for refuge. It was heart-rendering to see the people crying from their windows for help. Boats were sent for, and at length three arrived from Par, and the landing of the people commenced, and we are happy to say that no life was lost. The people in general exerted themselves, and especially the sailors from Par, under Captain Found, and others, deserve praise for their manly conduct.
  • 1853
    • Rural Gardening Society
      Cottages Prizes 1853
      Tywardreath   St Blazey   Fowey   Lostwithiel
      1st prize 9/-d   1st prize 7/6d   1st prize 7/6d   1st price 5/-d
      2nd prize 7/-d   2nd price 5/-d   2nd prize 5/-d   2nd prize 2/6d
      3rd prize 5/-d   3rd prize 2/6d   3rd prize 2/6d
      4th prize 4/-d
      5th prize 3/-d
      St Sampsons as for Lostwithiel.  Lanlivery as for Fowey.  Luxulyan as for Fowey
      Given by the Rt Hon Lady Bassett and Wm Rashleigh Esq, the above prizes will be awarded to the cottager who rental does not exceed £6 10s 0d per annum - for the neatest and best stocked gardens in the above mentioned Parishes.

      Given by the Rt Hon Lady Bassett, Sir Colman Rashleigh Bart and Edmund Carlyon Esq to the Cottager, Labourer, Miner or Fisherman in each of the above Parishes who has brought up the largest family without parochial assistance, the youngest child not to be under 5 years of age - Each Parish 6/-d

      Two prizes, one of 4/-d and another of 2/6d will be given by Hon Mrs Rashleigh for the neatest and cleanest kept cottages in each of the Parishes of Tywardreath, Fowey and St Blazey.

      A prize of 10/-d by Lady Rashleigh and another of 10/-d by Sir Colman Rashleigh for the neatest and cleanest kept cottages in Luxulyan.

      Prize of 10/-d will be give by R Bishop Esq to the Female Servant who has lived longest in service of one family in the Parish of Fowey and has borne the best character.

  • 1854
    • Rural Gardening Society
      24th Annual Exhibition of this Society will be held at Tywardreath on Wednesday 19th July 1854
      Patronised by -
      Rt Hon Baroness Bassett   Rt Hon Lady Grenville   The Hon Mrs Rashleigh
      Lady Rashleigh   Mrs Grylls   The Rt Hon Earl of Mt Edgcumbe
      The Hon G M Foretscue   Sir Colman Rashleigh, Bt   Wm Rashleigh, Esq
      T J Agar Roberts Esq, MP   General Carlyon   Nicholas Kendall Esq, MP
      Wm Rashleigh Esq, Jnr   Thomas Hext Esq   Thomas Foster Esq
      Richard Foster Esq   Henry Thompson Esq   C B Garves Sawle Esq, MP
      John Mein, Esq   Capt Davies, RM   Edmund Carlyon Esq
      Edward Coode Esq   Thomas Cook Esq   Williams Ghilson Esq
      J N R Millett Esq   Nicholas Kendall Esq, Jnr   William Prater Esq
      Thomas G Graham Esq   J N Meredith Esq   W Wreford Esq
      Edward Shearm Esq   Robert Bishop Esq   A Illingworth Esq
      William Taylor Esq   Rev Prebendary Lyne   Rev John Bower
      Rev Cuthbert E Hosken   Rev J F H Kendall   Rev Francis Hendy
      Rev R L Bampfield   Rev E J Treffry   Rev R Measham
      Rev J Bartlett   Lieut Clarke RN   Lieut Essal RN

      President for the year 1854:   Nicholas Kendall Esq, Jun

      Honorary Officers:
      Treasurer: Mr W Polkinghorne
      Secretary - Mr W E Geach
      Asst Secretary: Mr Thomas Rundell

      Committee:
      Mr Puckey   Mr Andrew   Mr Anstey   Mr Pearce
      Mr West   Mr C Rundell   Mr Polkinhorne   Mr J Polkinhorne
      Mr W Rundell   Mr T Rundell   Mr E Sowden   Mr J Cock
      Mr W Motten   Mr J Geach   Mr R Julyan   Mr T Thomas
      Capt F Puckey   Mr E Parson   Mr R Williams   Mr Powne
      Capt A Stephens   Mr W West, jun   Capt W Stephens   Mr G Andrew
      Mr J Polkinghorne   Capt P Rich   Mr W Lyttleton   Mr Lean
      Mr W Nettle   Capt S Sampson   Capt C Merret   Mr C Harris
      Mr J Tamlin   Mr Bear   Capt J Symons   Mr J Polkinhorne Jun
      Mr T Beer   Mr T Daddow   Mr E Hewitt

1860s

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  • 1862
    • A religious enquiry was made into the habits of miners
  • 1863
    • The workforce at the mines had now dropped to 250 men, 50 women and girls and 50 boys.
  • 1865
    • 22 July - the Prince & Princess of Wales (Albert Edward, the future Edward VII and Alexandra) came to Fowey on the Royal yacht Osborne. As part of their visit they came to see the smelting works at Par, and then visited Fowey Consols.
  • 1865
    • A year of growing economic problems nationally.
    • The Captains are:Francis Puckey, Merrett, & Job.
    • The mines are now more or less worked out
  • 1867
    • The Royal Gazette reports of a mine meeting held in February.
    • The Mines Closed
  • 1868
    • 30 January the Royal Cornwall Gazette reports on an evening of entertainment held at Bodmin Guildhall in order to raise funds "on behalf of the distressed miners and their families at Tywardreath" the hall was said to be have been filled to overflowing and the Rev J.D. Hawksley of Tywardreath told the audience that "he never expected to see such distress as there was at Tywardreath. If he were to say that many of them were starving it would not be more than one iota more than was really the case"
    • On 20 Feb the Royal Cornwall Gazette informs on the fact that 345 people earning on average 1/1d per week in the parish. The amount being half the sum to that to keep them in a workhouse. The Distress Fund Committee encouraged emigration and 8000 miners had recently left Cornwall leaving 20,000 dependants behind them.

1870s

  • 1871
    • Between 1871 and the 1881 Census the population of Cornwall decreased by 9% to 330,686.

1880s

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  • 1886
    • On January 23, an earthquake occurred in the West of England on Wednesday morning. At St. Blazey the inhabitants were so shaken in bed that they arose in fright. Buildings swayed to and fro and tottered. The shock took place at half past six, and lasted six seconds.

1900s

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  • 1901 The following are from reports in the Cornish Guardian newspaper during the year
    • On the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901 the 1 February edition of the Guardian reports - In Tywardreath Church belfry, muffled peals were rung before and after each service. In spite of very stormy weather there were large congregations especially in the evening. Before morning service Mr H.L.Elford, the organist played Spohr's "Blessed are the departed". Rev R.T.S Tolson (Curate), Rev Septimus Baker (Vicar)
    • 15 February: Tywardreath Pig Assurance Club Annual meeting held on Saturday evening. M.G. Lias presiding. About 50 members were present. Mr R Coumbe - treasurer, presented account showing income of £24. A balance of £10 was carried forward. The membership numbers 96. Messrs Hewitt, Puckey and Coumbe were elected as president, secretary and treasurer. Messrs Thomas, Harty, Lias, Trembath members of committee.
    • 8 March: Tywardreath - Mr T.B. Cock chairman of the Parish Council. Only 10 nominations for 13 seats. Frederick Thos Billing - labourer; Francis R Geach - farmer; John Govier - dairyman; William H Hewitt - builder; R. Johns - baker; Paul C Lias - post office clerk; William H Pengelly - platelayer; John R Phillips - farmer; Robert Rundell - weighbridge clerk; Robt Rundell - carpenter.
    • 12 April - On Sunday Tywardreath Church was prettily decorated by Mrs Bath, Misses Oliver, Tuckey, Gill, Mason, Marks, Bulley, Lutley & Job. Bible Christians Mr J Jose presided. Miss Job - organ. Capt S.Yeo - readings. Rev R.T. Tolson curate for last 3 years left for a curacy a Warwick, he was presented with a silver communion set and a cheque.
    • 28 June - a prevalence of measles was reported as affecting school attendance, especially of the infants
    • 2 August - Tea was provided by Bishop Gott for a large gathering of Sunday School teachers at Trenython. Of Tywardreath Sunday School - Mrs Dingle, Misses Pearse, James, Rundell, Marks, Kent, Sambella, Daniel, Prynn(2).
    • 30 August - Tywardreath Petty Session: Henry Griffen of Tywardreath applied for a Vaccination Exemption in respect to his child named Wilfred Griffen. Certificate was granted. The Chairman told the applicant that a great responsibility was on themselves. It was a well-known fact that vaccination was the greatest preventative against smallpox.
    • 30 August - Cricket Match played at Tywardreath on Saturday last and resulted in a win for the home team. Tywardreath played a very strong eleven having the services of several noted Fowey & St Blazey men. Scores: Bodmin 51, Tywardreath 75 total 8 wickets.
      L.H. Elford 17 runs bowled Jane
      H. Caton 0 runs caught Pellow, bowler - Lee
      G. Harvey 1 run caught Pellow, bowler - Jane
      K. Barker 0 runs, bowled - Lee
      A. Charlier 9 runs, caught Lee, bowler - Jane
      F. Barnicutt 22 runs not out
      S. Morcom 13 runs not out
      R Carpenter 5 runs - run out
      N Coon - did not bat
      extras - 4
    • 13 September: Football match - Tywardreath v Levers 11. Tywardreath opened the season on Saturday with a game against Levers 11 from Lostwithiel before a good many spectators. The home team started down the bill and at once pressed, and by good play by Thorne, Brenton scored. Shortly after S.V. Morcom got a goal. The visitors then pulled themselves together and through a good combination Willoughby scored. At half time the homesters were leading by one goal. The visitors played downhill with the wind, pressed nearly all the time, but were unable to score until after 20 minutes play when Willoughby found the net. The game thus ended in a draw of 2 goals each.
    • 18 October - Subscribers to Tywardreath lighting fund met on Friday. Rev S.V. Baker - president in chair. Treasurer Mr Hewitt reported an adverse balance of about £1. It was stated that about £12 was required to purchase new lamps etc in addition to the annual cost of maintenance and the meeting pledged itself to raise the amount, the Chairman promising 3 guineas, provided the remainder was obtained. Rev S.V.Baker re-elected president. Mr W.H. Hewitt - treasurer, Mr C.Thomas - secretary, Mr J.Teare Harry - auditor. Messrs J.H.Mitchell, J.N.Graham, Jose, Pengelly, Benney, Wicks, Hodge, Coles, Solomon, Tamblyn, Willcock and Bartlett as committee.
    • November - Tywardreath Habitation of the Primrose League held a meeting, at which Mr Treneer Michell, Ruling Councillor, Fowey Habitation, presided, in the unavoidable absence of Sir Colman Rashleigh. Mr Oswald, delegate from the Central Council, delivered an address on the principles of the Primrose League, in common with the majority of the British 'nation', would support the Government in the struggle in South Africa to the end, was enthusiastically cheered. Mr E.W.Rashleigh, late Ruling Councillor, presented the "Grand Start of the 2nd Order" to the late secretary, Miss Geach, who as warden and secretary, had been connected with the Habitation since its foundation. During the evening a musical programme was contributed to by the Misses White, Rosevear, and Bartlett, and Messrs Denision(Fowey), Polglase, and Kent. Mr White contributed two much appreciated recitals and Miss White acted as accompanist. The piano was lent by Rev S.V. Baker and the room gaily decorated with flags.
    • November - The festival of St Andrews was kept on Tuesday. The Vicar (Rev S.V.Baker) was ably assisted by a committee, at which Mr S Harvey acted as secretary. In spite of unfavourable weather, a large number of parishioners attended a public tea, presided over by the following ladies - Mesdames Bath, Box, Dingle, Harty, Knight and Polkinghorne, the Misses Gott, Gill, Tuckey and Knight, and it was followed by a successful entertainment, arranged by Mr S H Elford, the organist of St Andrews. Among those taking part were the Misses Bolton(Fowey), Rosevear, and Bartlett (Par), J White (St Blazey), Marks and Dennison (Fowey), Elford, Ellery, Bailey, and Barnicutt. Mr G White and Mr J T Harry gave readings and recitations and part songs were rendered by the younger members of the choir. At evensong, in church Rev A.H. Cooke(Vicar of Par) preached to a large congregation.
    • December - At Tywardreath Board School, silver medals and book prizes were distributed by Mr E.W. Rashleigh, chairman of the School Board, in the presence of the members of the Board and friends. Mr Rashleigh addressed a few words of praise and encouragement to the children. Silas Bone, who for the fourth year earned a silver clasp for an unbroken attendance, was heartily applauded, as also was Edith Keam, Fred Bone, Wm Olver, Jas Olver and Wallace Wellington, who for three years in succession had obtained clasps or medals. A large number of children also qualified as medalists for the second and first time, and altogether 24 boys and 16 girls were thus decorated. Many children were also awarded book prizes for an attendance of 400 times and over in the year. At intervals selections were rendered by the Boys' Band. The meeting concluded with cheers for the members of the Board and the teaching staff, and the singing of the National Anthem.
    • December - Tywardreath Parish Council met on Wednesday 11th. Present: Mr R Rundell (Chairman), Messrs F.T. Billing, J Govier, R.Johns, P.C. Lias, W.H. Pengelley, J.R. Phillips, R. Rundell (Tywardreath) and W.H. Hewett. - The Chairman reported that a committee had met the representatives of St.Blazey Parish Council to consider the question of providing a burial ground for the ecclesiastical district of St Mary's, Par, but having found that a joint parish meeting of parts of the two parishes, of which St Mary's district is comprised, cannot legally be held the matter was referred back to Tywardreath Parish Council. It was practically the unanimous opinion of the Council that a parish meeting should be convened to consider and, if thought advisable, to adopt the Burial Acts for the entire civil parish. It was stated that Tywardreath churchyard was nearly full, and more burial accommodation would be required at no distant date. The Local Government Act, 1894, while giving the power to adopt the Burial Acts exclusively into the hands of the parish meeting, has provided no machinery for adopting them for an ecclesiastical district which overlaps two or more parishes. It was, therefore, considered that to adopt the Acts for parts of the two parishes and for them to united and provide a common burial ground would prove a complicated affair. The opinions was also express that if this were done and one-third of the civil parish of Tywardreath was joined for burial purposes to a part of St Blazey parish the remaining part of Tywardreath would have to bear all the expense of a cemetery in the event of its being required. - A resolution was therefore passed that a parish meeting be convened on Monday 6th January 1902 at 7.30 pm at the Board Schools to consider and (if thought desirable) to adopt the Burials Acts for the civil parish of Tywardreath. - Plans were laid on the table of proposed electric power works at Par Harbour. - A precept was issued for £5 for general expenses.
  • 1902 The following are from reports in the Cornish Guardian newspaper during the year
    • 4 April - At Tywardreath Church on Monday, Mr R H Knight, youngest son of Mr J M Knight of Newhouse and Miss Rhoda Brewer daughter of Mr C Brewer late of Par Station, were married. Rev S V Baker officiated and the church was crowded. The bride wore a costume of silver grey with a hat to match; she was given away by her father. Miss Knight and Miss E Knight, sister and niece of the bridegroom were bridesmaids and Master D Knight was page boy.
    • 11 April - Tywardreath Parish meeting was presided over by Mr R Rundell who stated that they were now awaiting a decision by the Home Secretary on the provision of a cemetery. Mr Westaway asked what had been done on the matter of organising a house to house collection of rubbish; was informed that on the District Council asking for the names of owners and tenants requiring this accommodation no further steps had been taken on this matter. By majority vote the Parish Council was recommended to carry out the requirements of the District Council. A public meeting will be held on the 16th April to consider what steps shall be taken to celebrate the Coronation.
    • 6 June - Tywardreath hailed the peace news with great satisfaction. Flags were hoisted in various places and by mid-day the streets were alive with youngster carrying flags. After the afternoon session, the school children and their teachers with the boys went in procession around the streets stopping at various places where patriotic songs and the National Anthem was sung. In the evening a procession headed by the fifes and drum band under the leadership of Mr Griffen perambulated the streets. Merry peals were rung on the parish bells throughout the day.
    • 6 June - To Tywardreath Ambulance Class Dr Tuckey gave a lecture on 'Home Sanitation'. Subsequently Messrs J T Barnicott, W H Bennett, R Crocker, W Frost, T B Gerrans, J T Harry, B Harvey, George Hillman, J Job, J H Mitchell, A and P Paynter, J Pearce, W H Polglase, C Thomas, W Trethewey and W Westanby received from Mrs Dean (in the absence of Mrs Tuckey) certificates for passing the recent 1st examination. The members of the class gave a very interesting demonstration of 1st Aid to the injured. Mr Caleb Thomas presented a silver mounted walking stick suitable inscribed as a toke of their appreciation to Mr William Cole for the services he had rendered in preparing them for the examination. Mr Olver who had taken great interest in the class and has acted as secretary was handed a leather bound copy of the 'Household Physician'. The chair was occupied by Mr J N Graham, the president.